The use of nanotechnology in today’s manufacturing realm has resulted in the production of improved materials and new products that are better built, longer lasting, cleaner, safer and smarter products for the home and a multitude of industries. Although many manufacturers boast the the utilization of this technology in the research and development of their products, few purchasers understand the science and application of such innovation. Nanotechnology involves the study and manipulation of extremely small particles of matter, namely individual atoms and molecules that cannot be seen with the naked eye or even with the most common microscopes. How different atoms are arranged in something can affect the various properties of that item such as it’s strength, texture, durability or odor. Scientists who study nanotechnology alter the structures of materials at extremely small scales to achieve specific and new emergent properties. This is accomplished by putting atoms together in ways we have never done before, creating materials that are stronger, lighter, more durable, water-repellent, anti-reflective, self-cleaning, ultraviolet or infrared-resistant, anti-fog, antimicrobial, scratch-resistant or electrically conducive, among other things. The challenge with such an endeavor is that atoms are incredibly small and consequently, difficult to work with. In fact, the radius of a typical atom is one tenth of a billionth of a meter. To put this in perspective, a string of atoms one meter long would contain an atom for every person in the world. Fortunately, over the past few decades, scientists and engineers have become increasingly skilled at engineering materials down to individual atoms or groups of atoms. Many everyday commercial products that are now on the market rely on nanoscale materials and processes including fabric, sporting goods, automobile parts, luggage, batteries, food, electronics, medicine and fuel and it is estimated that the global nanotechnology market will reach $90.5 billion by 2021.
The study and utilization of nanotechnology is paving the way for new innovations that may benefit society in ways that we have not even begun to imagine. To date, nanotechnology is already broadening the medical tools, knowledge and therapies currently available to doctors, which may lead to the earlier detection and treatment of cancer and other medical conditions. Nanotechnology researchers are currently working on a number of different therapeutics where a nanoparticle can encapsulate or otherwise help to deliver medication directly to cancer cells and minimize the risk of damage to healthy tissue, as well exploring ways that nanotechnology can improve vaccines, including vaccine delivery without the use of needles. Nanotechnology also offers future transportation benefits, environmental remediation, and a multitude of electronic and energy applications. Many scientists are investigating new ways to develop clean, affordable and renewable energy sources, along with means to reduce energy consumption and lessen toxicity burdens on the environment. Energy innovations such as more efficient solar panels, stronger and lighter weight wind turbines, lighter car parts and improved fuel efficiency will likely be the face of a future shaped by nanotechnology.
At the forefront of industry attempts to revolutionize transportation and energy outcomes through the use of nanotechnology is Archoil , a leading supplier of progressive, high performance lubrication and fuel treatment products. Changes in diesel equipment design such as the introduction of post-combustion particulate filtration systems (DPF) and hydraulic-electric fuel injection systems (HEUI), as well as the introduction of biofuel and ultra low sulfur diesel blends, mandate progressive solutions to overcome new types of problems. By utilizing specific elements such as potassium borate, hexagonal boron nitrate and tungsten disulfid to decrease friction and corrosion while improving high load carrying capabilities, Archoil has engineered a range of formulations to address lubrication and fuel-related challenges present in modern diesel vehicles. Among these developments is Archoil’s AR9100 a nanoborate-based oil additive that forms a solid boundary lubricating film to reduce friction and provide anti-wear, extreme pressure and anti-corrosion protection to engines, gearboxes and hydraulic systems. This friction modifier improves lubricity by filling surface asperities creating a smooth, low friction, surface. Nanoborate has a lower shear strength than the metal it bonds to so friction between surfaces is reduced. This means less engine noise, better fuel economy and less heat from friction, while also improving power and efficiency. Better for the environment, your engine and you!
Having trouble getting revved up about the encroaching winter season? Chances are your heavy equipment is too! The harsh effects of dipping temperatures, heavy snow fall, cold wind and freezing conditions during the winter can be problematic for people and heavy equipment alike. No need to fret, however, over what mother nature has in store. Preparing your equipment for the elements is as easy as putting on your hat and boots. Just follow these simple steps to put some spring back in your engine and have Jack Frost singing the blues!
Step 1: Treat Your Fuel
Diesel fuels are comprised of paraffin wax that serves as a natural lubricity agent. As the ambient temperature of fuel drops, the wax begins to form large square-shaped structures. These structures can cause fuel to gel, clogging your fuel lines and filter. To protect against gelling, use a cold-flow improver (CFI) or a diesel fuel specially formulated for low temperatures. CFIs include de-icers and wax settling agents which extend the operability of the fuel. When utilized at the recommended treatment ratio, winter fuel treatments, such as Schaeffer Diesel Treat 2000, supports improved fuel economy benefits, faster warm-up, reduced emissions, rust protection and improved cetane ratings. A cetane number (CN) is an indicator of the combusion speed of diesel fuel and compression needed for ignition. As a general rule, the higher the cetane number, the faster the fuel will ignite and the more completely it will burn. These attributes are important because as the fuel burns faster and more completely, the engine experiences faster cold weather start-up, increased performance and lower emissions which can be harmful to the environment. Typically, diesel engines operate well with a CN from 40 to 55 during the winter season. If temperatures drop between -4 degrees and -20 degrees, upgrade from a minimum fuel rating of 40 to a 50 cetane rating.
Step 2: Change Your Filters
Whenever possible, keep extra fuel filters on hand and be sure to empty your fuel water tap before temperatures take a dive. Although fuel gelling can be an issue, it’s freezing water in fuel storage tanks and filtration that typically plugs filters during the early winter months. Replacing water-absorbing filters and draining the water separator regularly can go a long way in helping to avoid damage to engine components such as fuel pumps and injectors.
Step 3: Maintain Your Battery
The battery is arguably the pulse of your engine. Therefore, it is imperative that you care for yours by cleaning the battery terminals and making sure that connections are tight. Conduct a visual inspection of your battery, checking for signs of corrosion, dirt or moisture, as these will drain the battery’s life. As temperatures decline so will your battery’s power. At 32 degrees Fahrenheit, a fully charged battery only has a 65 percent cranking capacity. Your engine’s starting requirements, on the other hand, increase from 100 percent to 155 percent. Therefore, be sure to recharge your battery when its capacity drops below 75 percent. When not in use for an extended period of time, batteries should be removed and stored inside.
Step 4: Check The Coolant System
Preventative maintenance is key. Be sure to check for radiator leaks, plugged or hardened hoses and cracked belts. Tighten any loose hose clamps and check coolant levels and anti-freeze strength. Coolants (or anti-freeze) protect your engine from freezing while defending components against corrosion. In addition, they play a critical role in sustaining overall engine heat balance by removing heat. Your coolant level should be one inch over the top of the radiator core and free of contaminants. Be sure that the coolant you are using has a freeze point conducive to the type of climate you are facing. While water provides the best heat transfer, glycol is also used in coolants to provide freeze protection. Ideally a 50/50 ratio of coolant to water will keep your engine running. However, in colder climates a 60/30 coolant to water ratio is recommended. Additionally, avoid using hard water or water that possesses a high mineral content. Hardness levels below 300 ppm of chloride and 100 ppm of sulfate are suggested for best results.
Step 5: Winterize Your Machine’s Tires
Check your tires daily during the cold winter months, as cooler temperatures can cause tires to lose air faster than in warmer weather. Tires should be checked for proper tire pressure and wear marks. When inflating, do so in a heated area whenever possible to help improve the tire bead seal. Such measures will ensure the proper functioning of your equipment and help you stay on track all winter long.
Haven’t been able to make a clean shot this season? Well, blame it on the gun….really! As it turns out, the problem may not actually be yours, despite what all of your buddies have been telling you. The truth is, a clean rifle is an accurate rifle. Your firearms require cleaning to blast away carbon, grease, powder residue and oil build-up leaving the firearm clean and ready for lubrication. In order to ensure safe and effective cleaning, begin by emptying the chamber and placing your rifle in a stationary device. Next, use a bronze brush with a solvent to go down the bore, one pass down and back, to break up heavy build-up. A gun cleaning solvent should loosen and/or dissolve carbon and/or metal fouling in the bore so that a patch can wipe it clean. Insert it carefully through the breach, toward the muzzle, and retract it. Now you are ready to patch the bronze brush. Slide it gently into the bore, pushing it through and pulling back until your bore is clean. A patch that is no longer stained with heavy black residue is indicative of a job well done.
If you are planning on storing your rifle for awhile after it has been cleaned, consider applying a lubricant to the patch at the end of your brush. Carefully reinsert it into the chamber and bore, push it through and withdraw the brush. This thin coat will help to protect your rifle during the months that you are not using it. Not certain which lubricant to use? LPS 1 Greaseless Lubricant offers short term protection and is safe to use on all parts including bore, buffer tube, pins, springs, trigger components, frame, mag wells, bolt carrier and slide. Additionally, it conditions metal surfaces and reduces wear caused by friction and corrosion. On the other hand, LPS 2 Heavy-Duty Lubricant protects for up to 12 months in storage and will not attract sand, dirt or fouling, so it helps ensure long-lasting, reliable firearm function. Formulated to go on wet and stay wet, LPS 2 coats and lubricates internal parts to prevent binding. Additionally, LPS 3 Premier Rust Inhibitor is an excellent long term storage alternative. It’s soft, waxy film protects and prevents metal from corrosion when stored indoors for up to two years .
As a general rule, clean your barrel every ten shots if you require top accuracy. Be sure to lubricate the areas around rotating parts, such as the bolt and trigger assembly. Also, try to keep grease away from the openings into the firing pin housing and don’t forget to oil the bolt rails and grooves in which they ride. Caring for and protecting your parts will go a long way in maintaining the integrity of your rifle and your reputation!
Need help finding your game this season? The Led Lenser P7QC is specially designed to help you do just that. An ideal choice for hunters and fisherman, this pocket-sized flashlight is equipped with four practical light colors: Red for preserving your natural night vision, green for game viewing with a wavelength that is not visible to the wild, blue for detecting trails or traces of blood and white for day vision, focus and color perception. The P7QC allows users to regulate brightness levels and select colors by simply rotating the turn switch to the desired color. It’s lens is a prism diffuser that provides a broader throw, up to 3 hours of light in high power mode and 50 hours in low power. Complete with a lanyard, nylon holster and 4 AAA batteries, the Led Lenser P7QC boasts excellent water resistance and provides up to 220 lumens of output at an affordable price. http://www.jdindustrialsupply.com/led-lenser-p7qc.html
DIY Tips For Winterizing Your Home….
As temperatures begin to take a dip across the country, people are preparing themselves and their personal property for the forthcoming winter season. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, the typical American family spends about $2,000 per year on their home energy bills. However, about 20% of the air you use to heat your house during the winter is lost through leaks and incomplete sealing on windows and doors. A home energy audit, performed on your own or by a professional, will allow you to pinpoint how much energy your home uses, where your home is losing energy and what actions can be taken to make your home more energy efficient. If opting for a DIY audit, you should begin by checking your home’s exterior enclosure. Identify drafts by using smoke tests near doors, windows, electric outlets, attic hatches, range hoods and plumbing and ceiling fixtures. This can be accomplished through the use of a candle or incense stick. Wherever the smoke wavers, or is sucked out of or blown into the room, there’s a draft and proper measures should be taken to reduce air loss. Next, inspect exposed ducts for dirt, small holes, disjointed pipes and improper insulation. As reported by the Department of Energy, since ducts are typically made out of thin metal that easily conducts heat, uninsulated or poorly insulated ducts in unconditioned spaces can lose 10% to 30% of the the energy used to heat your home. Also, be sure to check insulation R-value or thickness where it is exposed. Pay particular attention to areas around ducts, water heaters, appliances, attics and unfinished basements. Use a ruler to measure and compare your results against those suggested for your region via an insulation calculator. Finally, be mindful of stains on insulation which can be indicative of air leaks from a hole behind the insulation, such as a duct hole or crack in an exterior wall.
You’ve done the legwork. Now what?
Odds are that your home energy audit has exposed the culprits behind those baffling utility bills. While some projects are best left for professionals, there are many that most homeowners can accomplish on their own. Below you will find some simple solutions to winter’s biggest offenders.
Diesel engines and vehicles make up about a third of the entire transportation fleet in the U.S. Used to power diesel cars, trucks, ships, locomotives, farm, construction and mining equipment, the amount of sulfur in diesel fuel is directly linked to the amount of pollution produced when the fuel is burned in the engine. Pollution from diesel exhaust includes soot or particulate matter, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and other hazardous air pollutants, which have proven to have serious human health and environmental effects. In 2006, the EPA issued a mandate requiring that all highway diesel fuel supplied to the market after 2010 be ULSD (ultra-low sulfur diesel), reducing sulfur levels in fuel from as many as 5,000 parts per million (ppm) to 15 ppm for highway diesel vehicles. Between 2007-2014, low sulfur (500 pppm) and ULSD (15 ppm) fuel was phased in for non-road, locomotive and marine diesel fuel as well. Consequently, today’s diesel powered vehicles feature low emission engines that are environmentally advantageous, but more susceptible than ever to diesel fuel related wear. These newer engines contain an emissions-reducing device called a particulate filter that traps the tiny particles of soot in the exhaust fumes. The filter uses a sensor that measures back pressure, or the force required to push the exhaust gases out of the engine and through the tailpipes. The mandate of the EPA to reduce sulfur content of diesel fuels, however, has resulted in the elimination of certain naturally occurring, polar compounds that protect the fuel system from wear by forming a protective layer on the metal surfaces of the fuel injection system. The increased use of the hydrotreating and hydrocracking refining processes to produce the maximum 15 ppm ultra low sulfur diesel fuel causes these naturally occurring polar compounds to become either chemically altered or entirely removed, resulting in the need for diesel fuel additives to enhance the quality and efficiency of fuels. Although, in theory, proper additives should already be mixed into your fuel upon purchase, extensive research has revealed wide gaps in the quality of diesel fuel available in different countries. “Premium” diesel is defined by four properties: cetane number, low-temperature operability, thermal stability and fuel-injector cleanliness, but regulations are lax at best. The number and types of additives can vary considerably and some, such as water removers, are not utilized at all by petroleum refineries. Such substandard fuels have the tendency to wear vital components, cause stickiness in valves and clog filters, potentially resulting in decreased engine life. Aftermarket fuel additives, on the other hand, contain additives that refineries and distributors don’t use, working against the majority of problems related to diesel fuel quality. Among the many benefits that fuel additives offer are:
The EPA regulates additives due to their impact on emissions. Among those registered and deemed compliant with the EPA’s standards are Schaeffer Fuel Additives. Schaeffer products undergo a rigorous testing and development process to ensure quality and compatibility, in addition to stringent performance standards. Schaeffer is commited to manufacturing products that are not only cost effective, but environmentally responsible. Their biodegradable oils provide superior protection in environmentally sensitive areas while protecting equipment and reducing energy. For a current list of registered EPA manufacturers or to learn more about Schaeffer Oil additives be sure to visit the EPA website.
Industries today are toting the advantages of powder coated finishes! A notable alternative to liquid paint, powder coating has gained popularity as a dry finishing process used to protect the toughest industrial machinery, as well as common household items including electronics and appliances. The powder used in this process is comprised of finely ground particles of pigment and resin, which are sprayed onto a surface to be coated and baked to a fluid state. Powder coated products have proven to be more durable and resistant to moisture, chemicals and ultraviolet light than liquid paints, while toting an attractive and high-quality finish. Whereas, standard paints can take days to cure and are dependent on atmospheric conditions, powder coated products are ready to use within 20 minutes of heat curation and produce a much thicker coating that will not sag or run. In addition, powder coatings meet all Environmental Agency Protection requirements for air and water pollution control. These materials are generally free of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the potentially harmful solvents found in wet paints, minimizing risks to workers and reducing industrial pollution concerns.
Powder coating can be divided into two primary categories; thermoplastic powder and thermoset polymer. Thermoset powder coating differs from thermoplastic powder in that it undergoes a chemical change as it cures and cannot be remelted or reused. This change is referred to as crosslinking. On the other hand, thermoplastic powders remain chemically unchanged throughout the process and are able to be reused and remelted. This type of paint is generally applied to a part that is is heated to a temperature well above the powder’s melting point, causing the powder to melt and form a scratch-resistant, uniform film of paint.
The four basic resins used for thermoset powders are epoxy, acrylic, polyester and fluropolymer. Polyester resins rank high in popularity among powder coating paints, as they offer excellent corrosion protection and extreme weather protection. On the contrary, expoxy-based powder coating is typically limited to indoor applications due to its ultraviolet and harsh weather sensitivity. In architectural and highly corrosive environments, fluoropolymer powders fare well due to their high quality, weather-resistant finish, while acrylic thermosetting powders offer a chip-resistant, high-gloss finish ideal for the automotive industry.
Powder coating involves a multi-step process which includes part preparation, powder application and high-temperature powder curing. Prior to coating, each part must be properly cleaned of dirt, grease, oil, metal oxides, or other substances that may interfere with the painting process. Poor pretreatment practices may lead to a number of issues including loss of adhesion, pinholing, outgasing, weld pull away and premature coating failure in harsh environments such as salt air. In order to achieve superior performance and weathering characteristics, a good pretreatment, such as etching or phosphating is recommended. Such treatments help prevent flash rust prior to powder coating and provide for long-lasting physical bonds.
Alvin’s Lab-Metal and Hi-Temp Lab Metal may be used to patch, smooth, repair and seal items that need to be powder coated. An ideal filler for dents, voids cracks and other surface blemishes, Lab-Metal Repair and Patching compound adheres well to most clean, dry surfaces and can withstand vibration and other difficult conditions. For powder coating processes running above 425 degree F. Hi-Temp Lab-Metal must be used and applied in thin, 1/4 inch, layers. Allow for a minimum drying time of 24 hours, then heat cure. Lab-Metal, on the other hand, may only be used in instances where metal parts will not be exposed to temperatures topping 425 degrees F. for longer than 20 minutes and should be applied no thicker than 3/8 inch.
Following pretreatment, the object must be completely dried before powder is applied. The most common way of applying a powder coating is through the use of an electrostatic gun. The powder is electrically charged as it is applied to the part, giving each particle of the powder a negative charge. The part being powder coated is electrically grounded as a means of attracting and attaching the powder to the part’s surface. This electrostatic attraction is a key element in the process, aiding the coating evenness and the speed of applying the coating. The result is a uniform coating of dry powder clinging to the part.
Once the part is coated with powder, it must be moved into a curing oven. There the powder gels, flows and cures to produce a smooth, durable powder coat finish. During the curing process, crosslinking takes place. It is at this point that the part can be removed from the oven, cooled in ambient air, and put into service.
In industrial environments, the buildup of substances such as grease, oil, dust, paint, lubricants, rust, minerals, fats, proteins and clay can be highly detrimental to machinery and precautions must be taken to ensure that vital components are kept free from such residue. Degreasers, consequently, play a critical role in proper maintenance routines, as they prevent the breakdown of equipment caused by contamination and help significantly lower repair costs. Comprised of a combination of surfactants (compounds that reduce the surface tension between two liquids or between a liquid and a solid), sequestering agents and alkaline builders, most degreasers operate on the same chemical principle. A long hydrophobic chain at one end of the molecule is attracted to oil and grease while the hydrophilic end is attracted to water. The hydrophobic molecules surround the oil particles and dislodge it from water allowing the surface to be rinsed clean of hazardous contaminants.
Depending on the kind of contaminant that you are trying to remove, there are many options available on the market today that can help you rid your parts of harmful impurities. Today’s degreasers are formulated to tackle both inorganic and organic soils, or a mixture of both. Organic soils include, but are not limited to, fat, grease, protein, mold, yeast, bacteria and petroleum. Inorganic soils consist of rust, scale, minerals, clay, silt, sand and hard water deposits. Soils that consists of both inorganic and organic materials are often the most difficult to remove and, in the past, have necessitated the use of a highly concentrated, solvent-based formula. However, advances in surfactant technology have resulted in the development of environmentally friendly degreasers, such as the ones below, that are safe to use and just as effective. Lets uncover the dirt on these degreasers!
The utilization of rubber dates as far back as 1770, when, presumably, English scientist, Joseph Priestly, discovered that it could be used to “rub” away the marks left by pencils. During those times, rubber was derived naturally from a milky liquid (latex) produced under the bark of the “cahuchu” (or rubber tree) in tropical regions of South America. Used by the indigenous peoples of the Americas to make bouncy balls, waterproof handmade buckets, pails, clothes, shoes and more, the use of this naturally occurring substance soon became widespread. During World War II, the demand for rubber in the United States began to outweigh the available supply due to the country’s separation from its sources in the Pacific. As a result, the American government began to look toward the development of synthetic alternatives to meet this growing need. Between 1941 and 1945, synthetic rubber production increased from 8,000 to 820,000 tons. Today, there are approximately twenty varieties of synthetic rubbers being manufactured throughout the world including acrylic, isoprene, polysulfide, nitrile, butadiene, butyl and silicone.
How rubber is used in today’s ever evolving world, depends largely on the physical and chemical properties of the material. The fact that rubber can be either hard or soft, significantly increases its functionality and range of applications. Hard rubber is used on the rigid outer surface of your vehicle’s tires. It’s strength, water and heat resistance benefits make it an ideal material for tire production. On the other hand, flexible, butyl rubber, is used on the inner portion of tires, as its airtight properties trap gases so tires stay inflated longer. Soft rubber is also used in the manufacturing of mats, protective gloves, adhesives and paints, while harder rubbers are utilized in the production of rigid inflatable boats, roofing membranes and flooring.
Perhaps one of the most innovative applications of rubber in recent times involves the development of a product called Rubber In A Can. Used to fill in, and seal, cracks, leaks and small holes, rubber in a can comes in an easy to spray aerosol canister. This black, rubberized liquid, creates a tight rubber surface drying to a flexible, rubberized watertight coating that will not crack, peel or chip in either hot or cold temperatures. Long lasting and durable, spray rubber in a can may be used on gutters, duct work, pvc pips, cars, weld joints, wheel wells, truck beds, foundations, gas tanks, driveways, HVAC equipment and more. This flexible liquid rubber can be painted once dry and will adhere to any metal, concrete/asphalt, or rigid plastic surface. To use, shake well and apply to a clean, dry surface (temperature should be above 50 degrees Fahrenheit). Hold the can 10-15 inches away from the surface, applying multiple coats. For optimal performance benefits, do not overspray as thick coats may take longer to dry and can result in dripping or sagging of vertical surfaces. After each use, invert can and spray one quick burst to clear nozzle.
On Labor Day we take “time time off” to honor the contributions of many hardworking Americans. Although Labor Day may be rooted in lofty ideals, for many, it serves as a day to chip away at unfinished home improvement projects, much like “Tim the Toolman Taylor”. The projects that you were going to complete, when summer was on the horizon, are now staring you dead in the face. And as if you didn’t already feel inadequate enough, you now have Pinterest to thank for all of the “inspiring” DIY ideas that your wife has pinned to your Lazy Boy recliner. Thankfully, we’ve got you covered. Here are some great “tools” to help you get started and rest easy this holiday weekend.
The Table Saw
Although table saws have become a subject of concern in recent years, due to the number of injuries resulting from their use, they are still, undoubtedly, one of the most powerful pieces of equipment available for DIY aspirers. The most versatile and productive of all woodworking machines, this single tool can rip, cross-cut, miter-cut, square, dado, rabbet, and even apply shapes to edges of wood stock. Table saws can be used to cut sheet plastic, aluminum, melamine and even tile. It is important, however, that you understand which blade to use, as dull, or unbefitting blades, can compromise your safety on the job and the quality of your work. Consider the materials that the blade will be used to cut and what type of saw it will be used in. As a general rule, blades with more teeth result in a smoother cut, and blades with fewer teeth remove material faster. In addition, the size of the gullet, tooth configuration and hook angle factor are all critical components of selecting the appropriate blade for your job. Be sure to keep the area you are working in clean and free from dust. Allowing debris to build up around your saw is hazardous and should be avoided. Products, such as GlideCote, by Bostik, feature a unique technology that drastically reduces sliding friction and eliminates surface “hang ups” on table saws while repelling dust, dirt and moisture. Furthermore, riving knives, when properly adjusted, greatly reduce the possibility of kickback, which is the most common injury resulting from the use of table saws. Located behind the blade, the riving knife holds the saw kerf open and prevents the stock from closing in on the blade and binding.
The Adjustable Wrench
Also recommended for DIY “enthusiasts” is an adjustable wrench, sometimes referred to as the “irreplaceable wrench” due to its tremendous versatility. Adjustable wrenches may be used for a multitude of home improvement projects, as they have an modifiable “jaw” that can accommodate nuts and bolts of various sizes. Engineered to move in only one direction, the adjustable wrench limits the amount of stress placed on the screw that sits just below the head of the wrench. Due to the wrench’s slightly offset head, loosening and tightening is also easier. Adjustable wrenches come in three different varieties; the crescent wrench, perhaps, being the most common. These wrenches are available in multiple sizes and work well on pipes, faucets, bike and vehicle repairs. The monkey wrench is ideal for bathroom and kitchen home repairs, such as toilet seats, drains, the kitchen sink, garbage disposal and showers. Its long handle allows users to apply their weight to the wrench, unquestionably tightening objects into place. The final type of wrench is referred to as a pipe, or “Stilson”, wrench. These wrenches are typically used to tighten or loosen pipe joints. They have a self-tightening adjustment that makes them ideal for use on both small and large pipes.
Spray adhesives disperse in fine droplets to provide a thin, uniform bonding surface. They can be used as a substitute for hot glue, tape and other adhesives in projects ranging from wallpaper borders to the making and decoration of furniture. Spray adhesives boast varying degrees of adhesive strength, so one must first consider the application of these products before making a purchase for their project. Some spray adhesives are designed for use with only one or two materials, while others can bond to a variety of surfaces. Drywall tinted adhesive, for example, is used to attach plastic corner beads to drywall, while rubber and vinyl spray adhesives are formulated to adhere to leather, laminate, wood, rubber, and plastic products. To use, prepare the work surface in advance by making sure that the area is free of dirt, oil or moisture. Next, protect yourself and the surrounding areas and make sure that there is adequate ventilation, as spray adhesives emit fine particles that can be inhaled. Apply a thin strip of the adhesive to a test area before using and read instructions completely. Once tested, spray light, even, coats to the entire surface. Be sure to hold the can upright and spray from a recommended distance of approximately 1/2 foot for optimum coverage.